The inception of printing human organs happened in the early 1980s. Engineers and designers used a laser-aided printing of polymer material with its shape defined in a computer-aided design (CAD) software. The process was later termed as stereolithography. But the real problem was its durability. The printed materials never lasted long. By the early 1990s, materials such as nanocomposites, blended plastics, and powdered metals were introduced. These materials were more lasting and produced hard and strong finished products. It wasn’t too late when the researchers brought the attention of the world to ponder why 3-D printers can’t be used to make living body parts?
The real issue was to find a material that can be used to make a whole new living body part. By late 1990s, the foundation of organ-building was laid and it was in 2000 when a synthetic scaffold of a human bladder was created by scientists, the quest of finding material for organ printing has finally ended. Scientists covered the scaffold with human cells and grew organs that worked successfully. In 2002, scientists created a miniature functional kidney that not only filtered blood and but also produced urine in an animal prototype.